Glossary beginning with E

The Glossary provides basic legal and technical definitions for the most common terms related to the fight against illicit traffic in cultural goods.

E

Endangered heritage

Any thing or concept considered of aesthetic, historical, scientific or spiritual significance which is in a vulnerable situation and at risk of being destroyed.

Source: International Council of Museums

Endangered object

Any cultural object which is in a vulnerable situation and at risk of being destroyed.

Source: International Council of Museums

Entry into force

A treaty does not enter into force when it is adopted. Typically, the provisions of the treaty determine the date on which the treaty enters into force, often at a specified time following its ratification or accession by a fixed number of States. For example, the 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage entered into force on 2 January 2009, three months after the date of the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by a Member State of UNESCO. A treaty enters into force for those States which gave the required consent.

Source: United Nations

Ethics

Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity.

Source: Oxford Dictionaries

Ex gratia payment

A payment not legally required, hence made as a favour.

Source: Arthemis, Art-Law Centre, University of Geneva

Expertise

It is the report of a professional inspection of an object in order to determine its date, its type, its material, its value and provenance (for example, the authenticity and value of a painting).

In the modern sense, it can also be considered as an indication "in general" of a specific investigation of a technical nature, for evaluation and investigation, however, based on the expertise and professionalism.

Source: International Observatory on Illicit Traffic in Cultural Goods

Export (of cultural object)

To send or transport a cultural object abroad, especially for trade or sale.

Source: Encyclopedia

Export certificate

See "Authorisation (of export)".

Expropriation

A governmental taking (or modification) of an individual’s rights.

Source: Arthemis; Art-Law Centre, University of Geneva

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